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科學家將重新定義“千克”

kira86 于2018-11-21發布 l 已有人瀏覽
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在今年國際計量大會上,科學家們一致投票決定告別古老的定義千克的方法,他們會采用普適常數作為基準的新測量體系。采用了將近140年的方法將成歷史。
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Scientists to Reboot the Kilogram

科學家將重新定義“千克”

This is a copy of the lump of metal which since 1879 has been single-handedly responsible for telling the world exactly how much a kilogram weighs.

這是一塊鉑銥合金圓柱體,自1879年來,該圓柱體就成為了國際單位“千克”的唯一基準。

But many of the world's scientists worry that this metal cylinder currently stored in a French lab carries too much weight unintended.When you just get it out of the vault, it's slightly dirty.But the whole process of cleaning or handling or using the mass can change its mass.So it's not the most, not the best way perhaps of defining mass.It's been very good for the last 130 years, but it's also a single point of failure in our entire mass system.

但是來自全球各地的科學家擔心,隨著時間增長,這個目前保存于一間法國實驗室的金屬圓柱體的重量發生了意料之外的變化。每次把它從保險庫里拿出來的時候,它都會輕微的沾染灰塵。那么把它打掃干凈、或者拿取或是使用其測質量的時候,它的質量都會發生變化,所以這并不是定義質量最好的方法。在過去的一百三十年內,用這種方法定義質量是很不錯的,但其同時也是我們整個質量系統里的一個單點故障。

In a vote this Friday, scientists from the General Conference on Weights and Measures are expected to vote unanimously to say goodbye to that kilogram weight.They will adopt a new measuring system based on universal constants,the scientific term for things that never change, like gravity or the speed of light. A kilogram will still be a kilogram, but like the speed of light, it can't ever change.There will be absolutely no change whatsoever, and it's taken an enormous amount of effort and agreement to get to that point.

本周五召開的國際計量大會上,科學家們將一致投票決定告別這種定義千克的方法。他們將會采用一種以普適常數作為基準的新測量體系,普適常數這一術語指重力或光速等永不改變的常量。一千克依舊代表一千克,但是就像光速一樣,這個數值永遠都不會改變。這個數值無論如何都不會發生改變,要實現這一點確實要花費巨大的努力,還要獲得大家的一致認可。

So why do it? Because no matter how precise the measurements of that lump of metal in France,its weight has changed ever so slightly over time.It's never perfect.And when engineers deal with weight on a smaller and smaller scale,that little imperfection becomes a huge imperfection called an uncertainty in scientific terms.And big uncertainties can make things like the tiny microchip in your new phone less precise and less efficient.We need to be met...to be able to measure at different scales because the uncertainties built up very, very quickly.The new system means no more uncertainty.And scientists say that will help clear the way for new more advanced technology in the future.

那么為什么一定要這么做呢?因為不論放在法國的這個金屬塊測量有多么精確,它的質量隨著時間變化一直在輕微發生改變,永遠都不是最完美的那個數值。所以當工程師在非常非常小的范圍內涉及到質量問題時,這種微小的不精確就會凸顯成為非常嚴重的不精確,術語稱為不確定性。這種極大的不精確會導致像新手機的微型芯片這樣的物品越來越不精確,效果越來越差。我們需要……我們需要能夠在不同的尺度上進行測量,因為不確定性的累積非常快。新的測量體系意味著不再存在不確定性。科學家稱這將為未來的高新科技發展做好準備。

Kevin Enix VOA News

美國之音記者Kevin Enix報道。

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